Information and Media Literacy has not been a static concept, since its very analysis has varied as much as the communication ecosystem has mutated. With the emergence, rise and popularization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), the term has changed from a conventional media perspective to one of media convergence.

Media usage and consumption habits have mutated over time. From the passive “press reader”, through the listening of conventional radio and television as “monologuist” media to the revolution of ICT, social networks and the 3.0 network, totally prone to prosumers. For this reason, understanding the historical context of Information and Media Literacy is essential to demonstrate how the media have mutated and how they interact with consumers.

This Communication from the EC gives an excellent description of the legislative framework for Media in Europe.

Is information, content and communication the same thing? Are media skills the same as informational and digital skills? Knowing the concepts and their differences is key to guide us in this theoretical journey. Through a series of resources from international organizations such as UNESCO, the main terms linked to Information and Media Literacy will be explained.

This Tool from Media Literacy Now provides resources for media literacy: classroom materials, materials for parents, state resources and workshop materials.



Historical background and concepts on media literacy.


History and conceptualization of media literacy.



Book with an historical research on media literacy in Portugal.



6 reports on media literacy in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Serbia and UK.



Mapping of media literacy practices and actions in EU-28, a report conducted by national experts to the European Audiovisual Observatory.



The study explains the process followed by the European Union fthe or construction of the conceptual framework and resulting indicators.


The various conceptions and approaches that have attempted to define media education have failed to unify theories and their curricular integration.

This resource from UNESCO is an easy-to-read, non-technical overview explaining
what information literacy means, designed for busy public
policy-makers, business executives, civil society administrators and practising professionals.


Literacy in education must move towards experiential pedagogy that ensures learning by doing as opposed to restricted knowledge, typical of traditional schooling. Media Literacy and Pedagogy should help students reflect on their own media diet.

Conceptual text with a list of potential international indicators for information supply, access and supporting skills by UNESCO Institute for Statistics



Several studies have attempted to rename and define the role of the student in the networked society, considering that his or her role has changed with the development of the Internet. One of the main challenges of Media Literacy is to educate media citizens and prosumers about the influence of mainstream media.

This is a resource of lessons to teach students about different aspects of the current media environment and how to navigate it. It goes from the historical viewpoint of media to current challenges and courses of action.